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Food Science and Biotechnology
→ Food Science and Biotechnology 2018 ; 27(1): 107-113
Effect of the solid state fermentation of cocoa shell on the secondary metabolites, antioxidant activity, and fatty acids
Ozana Almeida Lessa1, Nadabe dos Santos Reis2, Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite3, Melissa Limoeiro Estrada Gutarra3, Alexilda Oliveira Souza4, Simone Andrade Gualberto4, Julieta Rangel de Oliveira5, Elizama Aguiar-Oliveira5, Marcelo Franco5
1Post-Graduation Programm in Chemical and Biochemical Process Technology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21949-900, Brazil, 2Post-Graduation Program in Food Engineering, Department of Basic and Instrumental Studies, State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, Bahia 45700-000, Brazil, 3Department of Chemical and Biochemical Process Technology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21949-900, Brazil, 4Department of Exact Sciences and Natural, State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga 45700-000, Brazil, 5Department of Exact Sciences and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilhéus 45662-900, Brazil
ABSTRACT
During cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) processing, the accumulated cocoa shell can be used for bioconversion to obtain valuable compounds. Here, we evaluate the effect of solid-state fermentation of cacao flour with Penicillium roqueforti on secondary metabolite composition, phenol, carotenoid, anthocyanin, flavonol, and fatty acids contents, and antioxidant activity. We found that the total concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols did not change significantly after fermentation and the phenolic compound and total carotenoid concentrations were higher. The fermentation process produced an increase in saponin concentration and antioxidant activity, as well as significant changes in the levels of oleic, linoleic, gamma-linolenic, and saturated fatty acids. Based on our findings, we propose that the reuse of food residues through solid state fermentation is viable and useful.
KEYWORD
Food waste, DPPH, FRAP, Penicillium roqueforti, Bioactive compounds
Food Science and Biotechnology 2018 ; 27(1): 107-113
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