Food Science and Biotechnology
→ Food Science and Biotechnology 2020 ; 29(6): 825-835
GC–MS metabolomics revealed protocatechuic acid as a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing compound from black rice brans
Nancy Dewi Yuliana1 • Mirna Zena Tuarita1,2 • Alfi Khatib3,4 • Farida Laila5 • Sukarno Sukarno1
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB University), PO BOX 220, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16002, Indonesia 2 Department of Fisheries Technology and Management, Tual State Fisheries Polytechnic, Jalan Raya Langgur-Sathean Km. 6, Sathean, Kei Kecil, Southeast Maluku, Indonesia 3 Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia 4 Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia 5 College of Vocational Studies, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB University), Jalan Kumbang No. 14, Bogor 16151, Indonesia
GC–MS metabolomics was used to discriminate the phytochemicals profile of Indonesian white, red, and black rice brans, and Japanese white rice brans. This technique was used for the first time to identify compounds in rice brans having cytotoxic activity against WiDr colon cancer cells. Orthogonal Projection to the Latent Structure (OPLS) analysis showed that protocatechuic acid (PA) was a discriminating factor found in black rice brans which strongly correlated with its cytotoxicity (IC50 8.53 ± 0.26 lM). Real time-PCR data demonstrated that PA cytotoxicity at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 lg/mL) was mediated through different pathways. Bcl- 2 expression was downregulated at all tested concentrations indicating apoptosis stimulation. At 1–10 ppm concentration, PA activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways since the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were upregulated. At a higher dose (25 and 50 lg/mL), PA possibly involved in pyroptosis- mediated pro-inflammatory cell death by upregulating the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-7.
Rice bransㆍCytotoxicityㆍApoptosisㆍMetabolomicsㆍProtocatechuic acid
Food Science and Biotechnology 2020 ; 29(6): 825-835